Anal Cancer Incidence Rising in Homosexual Men
Cases of rectal cancer show a great increase in recent years. Rectal cancer is the third most common cancer type in western countries and is the second most virulent type of cancer. Rectal cancer stages progress quite sly. The symptoms of rectal cancer are similar to those of hemorrhoids. This may cause a misdiagnosis and a delay for treatment. This situation causes serious declines in the rate of rectal cancer recovery. Rectal cancer is one of the most risky types of cancer in terms of complications after surgery.
What is rectal cancer?
The last 12 cm of the large intestine is called Rectum. The last part of the rectum is called anus. Rectum is the section where the feces are removed from the digestive system. Malignant tumor formation in the rectum is called rectum cancer. Some doctors call it anal cancer.
What Are the Risk Factors for rectal Cancer?
The biggest risk group in rectal cancer are homosexuals. The incidence of rectal cancer in homosexuals is approximately 40 times higher than in normal people. This is mainly due to the fact that the rectum, which is normally an excretory organ and has a sensitive structure, is used outside of its purpose. Lesions, irritations and injuries caused by homosexual intercourse greatly increase the risk of rectal cancer. Continuing this kind of activity especially in the early stages of the disease causes the rectum cancer to spread much faster.
Smoking, alcohol consumption and poor nutrition are among the causes of rectum cancer.
What are the symptoms of rectal cancer?
– The appearance of feces in rectal cancer is an important symptom. As the rectum diameter is narrowed, the stool becomes thin.
– Blood in the stool.
– An mucus discharge from the anus. (More than 50% of cases occur.)
– Severe pain during defecation. (It occurs in 30% of cases.)
– Constipation and diarrhea.
– Formation of hard tubers around the anus.
– Itching of the anus.
– Fecal incontinence.
– Ulcerized wounds around the anus.
– Swelling of the lymph nodes in the anus and groin.
– 20% of cases do not show any symptoms. This is a very dangerous situation, as this may cause delay in treatment.
Which clinic for rectal cancer treatment?
For diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer, it is usually necessary to consult with Oncology, General Surgery, Gastroenterology and Radiology clinics. However, the definitive diagnosis and treatment process is carried out with the cooperation of these departments. There are also proctologists, colorectal doctors who are only interested in diseases of the anus.
How is rectal cancer diagnosed?
Early diagnosis is crucial in rectal cancer. The earlier the symptoms of rectal cancer are analyzed, the higher the likelihood of getting rid of the disease.
Methods used in the diagnosis of rectal cancer:
Rectal cancer screening test: Screening tests are carried out in high-risk groups. (Homosexuals, men with HIV infection, having sexual intercourse with different people and carrying condyloma in the cervix.)
Rectal cell samples are taken and examined by anoscopy method.
Biopsy: Samples taken from the tissue considered to be diseased are examined in the laboratory.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method.
Endorectal or endoanal ultrasonography (ERUS or EAUS)
PET / CT
How does rectal cancer spread?
In rectal cancer, tumors usually spread circularly and settle into the anus muscles. Due to this spreading, the anus becomes narrower and the defecation becomes painful. Tumors begin to spread to the prostate in men and to the vagina in women. Tumors spread to the lymph nodes in 10 ile15% of the cases, and 10% of them spread through the veins. In some cases, tumors can spread to the liver, lungs, bones, brain and eyes.
How is rectal cancer treated?
Rectum cancer is a type of cancer with a high rate of relapse. For this reason, even if positive results are obtained after the treatments, regular controls should be continued throughout life.
Surgery was the first treatment of rectum cancer. But nowadays, treatment is started with radiocemotherapy. Surgical intervention plan is performed according to the results of this treatment.
Surgical intervention is performed according to tumor stage and prevalence. Surgically, the rectum is removed completely or only the cancerous area is removed.
In order to reduce the risk of rectal cancer recurrence after surgery, radiotherapy and other chemotherapies are combined.
What’s the differences between rectal cancer and colon cancer?
Up to 12-15 cm from the anus is called rectum and this part is inside the pelvis. The other part of the abdomen that is outside the pelvis forms a large intestine. The anatomical structures and treatment methods of these two sections are different. Colon cancer treatment is usually done with standard surgical methods, but rectum cancer requires special experience and expertise.
What can I eat if I have rectal cancer?
Patients with rectal cancer should definitely stay away from smoking and alcohol. In this disease, olive oil dishes and Mediterranean diet are recommended. Fibrous foods will provide more comfortable defecation.
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